Note

This documentation is in draft form. Reports of any errors or suggestions for improvement are welcomed and should be submitted as new issues.

# Machine - crypto_enigma.machine¶

This module supports all of the functionality of an Enigma machine using an EnigmaConfig class and several utility functions, which support examination of its state (including the details of the cyphers used for encoding messages), stepping during operation, and encoding messages.

## Overview¶

 EnigmaConfig An Enigma machine configuration. config_enigma Create an EnigmaConfig from strings specifying its state. config_enigma_from_string Create an EnigmaConfig from a single string specifying its state. windows The letters at the windows of an Enigma machine. components The identities of the components in the Enigma machine. positions The rotational positions of the components in the Enigma machine. rings The ring settings in the Enigma machine. stage_mapping_list The list of mappings for each stage of an Enigma machine. enigma_mapping_list The list of progressive mappings of an Enigma machine at each stage. enigma_mapping The mapping used by an Enigma machine for encoding. config_string A string representing a schematic of an Enigma machine’s state. step Step the Enigma machine to a new machine configuration. stepped_configs Generate a series of stepped Enigma machine configurations. print_operation Show the operation of the Enigma machine as a series of configurations. enigma_encoding Encode a message using the machine configuration. print_encoding Show the conventionally formatted encoding of a message.

## Machine configurations¶

Enigma machine configurations and their functionality are represented using single class:

class crypto_enigma.machine.EnigmaConfig[source]

An Enigma machine configuration.

A class representing the state of an Enigma machine, providing functionality for

## Creating configurations¶

static EnigmaConfig.config_enigma(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Create an EnigmaConfig from strings specifying its state.

A (safe public, “smart”) constructor that does validation and takes a conventional specification as input, in the form of four strings.

Following convention, the elements of these specifications are in physical machine order as the operator sees them, which is the reverse of the order in which they are encountered in processing.

Validation is permissive, allowing for ahistorical collections and numbers of rotors (including reflectors at the rotor stage, and trivial degenerate machines; e.g., config_enigma("-", "A", "", "01"), and any number of (non-contradictory) plugboard wirings (including none).

Parameters: rotor_names (unicode) – The Walzenlage: The conventional letter or Roman numeral designations (its name) of the rotors, including reflector, separated by dashes (e.g. 'b-β-V-I-II'). (See components.) window_letters (unicode) – The Walzenstellung (or, incorrectly, the Grundstellung): The letters visible at the windows (e.g. 'MQR'). (See windows.) plugs (unicode) – The Steckerverbindungen: The plugboard specification (its name) as a conventional string of letter pairs separated by periods, (e.g., 'AU.ZM.ZL.RQ'). (See components.) rings (unicode) – The Ringstellung: The location of the letter ring on each rotor (specifcially, the number on the rotor under ring letter A), separated by periods (e.g. '22.11.16'). (See rings.) A new Enigma machine configuration created from the specification arguments. EnigmaConfig EnigmaValueError – Raised when arguments do not pass validation.

Example

>>> cfg = EnigmaConfig.config_enigma("c-β-V-III-II", "LQVI", "AM.EU.ZL", "16.01.21.11")

static EnigmaConfig.config_enigma_from_string(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Create an EnigmaConfig from a single string specifying its state.

Parameters: string (unicode) – The elements of a conventional specification (as supplied to config_enigma) joined by spaces into a single string. A new Enigma machine configuration created from the specification argument. EnigmaConfig EnigmaValueError – Raised when argument does not pass validation.

Example

This is just a shortcut for invoking config_enigma using a sigle string:

>>> cfg_str = "c-β-V-III-II LQVI AM.EU.ZL 16.01.21.11"
>>> EnigmaConfig.config_enigma_from_string(cfg_str) == EnigmaConfig.config_enigma(*cfg_str.split(' '))
True


Note that the string argument corresponds to the string representation of an EnigmaConfig

>>> print(EnigmaConfig.config_enigma_from_string(cfg_str))
c-β-V-III-II LQVI AM.EU.ZL 16.01.21.11


so that this method is useful for instantiation of an EnigmaConfig from such strings (e.g., in files):

>>> unicode(EnigmaConfig.config_enigma_from_string(cfg_str)) == unicode(cfg_str)
True


## State¶

The behavior of an Enigma machine, for both its operation and the encodings it performs is determined entirely by its state. This state is established when a machine is set to its initial configuration. Operation then produces a series of configurations each with new state

Formally, that state consists of internal elements not directly visible to the operator who can only indirectly see changes in the positions of the rotors as manifest in the rotor letters at the machine windows. This internal state is entirely responsible for determining the mappings used by the machine to encode messages.

Thes aspects of state can be used to costruct a varity of representations of the configuration of an Enigma machine.

### Visible state¶

EnigmaConfig.windows()[source]

The letters at the windows of an Enigma machine.

This is the (only) visible manifestation of configuration changes during operation.

Returns: The letters at the windows in an EnigmaConfig, in physical, conventional order. unicode

Example

Using cfg as defined above:

>>> cfg.windows()
u'LQVI'


### Internal state¶

The core properties of an EnigmaConfig embody a low level specification of an Enigma configuration.

The conventional historical specification of an Enigma machine (as used in config_enigma) includes redundant elements, and conceals properties that are directly relevant to the operation of the machine and the encoding it performs — notably the actual rotational positions of the components.

A complete “low level” formal characterization of the state of an Enigma machine consists of three elements: lists of components, their positions, and the settings of their rings. Here these lists are in processing order — as opposed to the physical order used in conventional specifications — and the have positions and ring settings generalized and “padded” for consistency to include the plugboard and reflector.

Note that though it is not likely to be useful, these elements can be used to instantiate an EnigmaConfig:

>>> cfg_conv = EnigmaConfig.config_enigma("B-I-II-III", "ABC", "XO.YM.QL", "01.02.03")
>>> cfg_intl = EnigmaConfig(cfg_conv.components, cfg_conv.positions, cfg_conv.rings)
>>> cfg_conv == cfg_intl
True


They may also be useful in extending the functionality provided here, for example in constructing additional representations of configurations beyond those provided in config_string:

>>> [b'{} {}'.format(c, p) for c, p in zip(cfg_intl.components, cfg_intl.positions)[1:]]
['III 1', 'II 1', 'I 1', 'B 1']

EnigmaConfig.components

The identities of the components in the Enigma machine.

For rotors (including the reflector) these correspond to the the rotor_names supplied to config_enigma, while for the plugboard this is just the plugs argument.

Returns: The name of each Component in an EnigmaConfig, in processing order. tuple

Example

Using cfg as defined above:

>>> cfg.components
(u'AM.EU.ZL', u'II', u'III', u'V', u'β', u'c')

EnigmaConfig.positions

The rotational positions of the components in the Enigma machine.

For rotors, this is to the number on the rotor (not letter ring) that is at the “window position”, and is computed from the window_letters and rings parameters for config_enigma.

This (alone) determines permutations applied to components’ wiring to produce the mapping for a configuration and thus the message encoding it performs.

Note that this is the only property of an enigma machine that changes when it is stepped (see step), and the changes in the letters visible at the windows are the (only) visible manifestation of this change.

Returns: The generalized rotational position of each of the components in an EnigmaConfig, in machine processing order. tuple

Example

Using cfg as defined above:

>>> cfg.positions
(1, 25, 2, 17, 23, 1)


Note that for the plugboard and reflector, the position will always be 1 since the former cannot rotate, and the latter does not (neither will be different in a new configuration generated by step):

cfg.positions[0] == 1
cfg.positions[-1] == 1

EnigmaConfig.rings

The ring settings in the Enigma machine.

For rotors, these are the rings parameter for config_enigma.

Returns: The generalized location of ring letter A on the rotor for each of the components in an EnigmaConfig, in machine processing order. tuple

Example

Using cfg as defined above:

>>> cfg.rings
(1, 11, 21, 1, 16, 1)


Note that for the plugboard and reflector, this will always be 1 since the former lacks a ring, and for latter ring position is irrelevant (the letter ring is not visible, and has no effect on when turnovers occur):

cfg.rings[0] == 1
cfg.rings[-1] == 1


### Mappings¶

The Enigma machine’s state determines the mappings it uses to perform encodings. Thes mappings can be examined in a number of ways:

EnigmaConfig.stage_mapping_list(**kwargs)[source]

The list of mappings for each stage of an Enigma machine.

The list of mappings for each stage of in an EnigmaConfig: The encoding performed by the Component at that point in the progress through the machine.

These are arranged in processing order, beginning with the encoding performed by the plugboard, followed by the forward (see Direction) encoding performed by each rotor (see mapping), then the reflector, followed by the reverse encodings by each rotor, and finally by the plugboard again.

Returns: A list of mappings preformed by the corresponding stage of the EnigmaConfig (see mapping). list of Mapping

Examples

This can be used to obtain lists of mappings for analysis:

>>> cfg = EnigmaConfig.config_enigma("b-γ-VII-V-IV", "VBOA", "NZ.AY.FG.UX.MO.PL", "05.16.11.21")
>>> cfg.stage_mapping_list()
[u'YBCDEGFHIJKPOZMLQRSTXVWUAN', u'DUSKOCLBRFHZNAEXWGQVYMIPJT', ...]


or more clearly

>>> for m in cfg.stage_mapping_list():
...     print(m)
YBCDEGFHIJKPOZMLQRSTXVWUAN
DUSKOCLBRFHZNAEXWGQVYMIPJT
CEPUQLOZJDHTWSIFMKBAYGRVXN
PCITOWJZDSYERHBNXVUFQLAMGK
UZYIGEPSMOBXTJWDNAQVKCRHLF
ENKQAUYWJICOPBLMDXZVFTHRGS
RKVPFZEXDNUYIQJGSWHMATOLCB
WOBILTYNCGZVXPEAUMJDSRFQKH
TSAJBPVKOIRFQZGCEWNLDXMYUH
NHFAOJRKWYDGVMEXSICZBTQPUL
YBCDEGFHIJKPOZMLQRSTXVWUAN


This list is a core part of the “internal” view of machine stage prduced by config_string (compare the second through the next-to-last lines with the above):

>>> print(cfg.config_string(format='internal'))
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
P YBCDEGFHIJKPOZMLQRSTXVWUAN         NZ.AY.FG.UX.MO.PL
1 DUSKOCLBRFHZNAEXWGQVYMIPJT  A  07  IV
2 CEPUQLOZJDHTWSIFMKBAYGRVXN  O  05  V
3 PCITOWJZDSYERHBNXVUFQLAMGK  B  13  VII
4 UZYIGEPSMOBXTJWDNAQVKCRHLF  V  18  γ
R ENKQAUYWJICOPBLMDXZVFTHRGS         b
4 RKVPFZEXDNUYIQJGSWHMATOLCB         γ
3 WOBILTYNCGZVXPEAUMJDSRFQKH         VII
2 TSAJBPVKOIRFQZGCEWNLDXMYUH         V
1 NHFAOJRKWYDGVMEXSICZBTQPUL         IV
P YBCDEGFHIJKPOZMLQRSTXVWUAN         NZ.AY.FG.UX.MO.PL
XZJVGSEMTCYUHWQROPFILDNAKB


Note that, because plugboard mapping is established by paired exchanges of letters it is always the case that:

>>> cfg.stage_mapping_list()[0] == cfg.stage_mapping_list()[-1]
True

EnigmaConfig.enigma_mapping_list(**kwargs)[source]

The list of progressive mappings of an Enigma machine at each stage.

The list of mappings an EnigmaConfig has performed by each stage: The encoding performed by the EnigmaConfig as a whole up to that point in the progress through the machine.

These are arranged in processing order, beginning with the encoding performed by the plugboard, followed by the forward (see Direction) encoding performed up to each rotor (see mapping), then the reflector, followed by the reverse encodings up to each rotor, and finally by the plugboard again.

Returns: A list of mappings preformed by the EnigmaConfig up to the corresponding stage of the EnigmaConfig (see mapping). list of Mapping

Examples

This can be used to obtain lists of mappings for analysis:

>>> cfg = EnigmaConfig.config_enigma("b-γ-VII-V-IV", "VBOA", "NZ.AY.FG.UX.MO.PL", "05.16.11.21")
>>> cfg.enigma_mapping_list()
[u'YBCDEGFHIJKPOZMLQRSTXVWUAN', u'JUSKOLCBRFHXETNZWGQVPMIYDA', ...]


or more clearly

>>> for m in cfg.enigma_mapping_list():
...     print(m)
YBCDEGFHIJKPOZMLQRSTXVWUAN
JUSKOLCBRFHXETNZWGQVPMIYDA
DYBHITPEKLZVQASNROMGFWJXUC
TGCZDFNOYEKLXPUHVBRJWASMQI
VPYFIEJWLGBXHDKSCZAORUQTNM
TMGUJAIHOYNRWQCZKSELXFDVBP
MIEANRDXJCQWOSVBUHFYLZPTKG
YAFMCQOEVSDPBIWGNZLRXKTJHU
UNJVFSEOTCAXHWQRMLGIPDZYKB
XZJVGSEMTCYUHWQROPFILDNAKB


Since these may be thought of as cumulative encodings by the machine, the final element of the list will be the mapping used by the machine for encoding:

>>> cfg.enigma_mapping() == cfg.enigma_mapping_list()[-1]
True

EnigmaConfig.enigma_mapping()[source]

The mapping used by an Enigma machine for encoding.

The mapping used by an EnigmaConfig to encode a letter entered at the keyboard.

Returns: The mapping used by the EnigmaConfig encode a single character. Mapping

Examples

This is the final element in the corresponding enigma_mapping_list:

>>> cfg.enigma_mapping()
u'XZJVGSEMTCYUHWQROPFILDNAKB'


### State representations¶

EnigmaConfig.config_string(**kwargs)[source]

A string representing a schematic of an Enigma machine’s state.

A string representing the stat of an EnigmaConfig in a selected format (see examples), optionally indicating how specified character is encoded by the configuration.

Parameters: letter (unicode, optional) – A character to indicate the encoding of by the EnigmaConfig. format (str, optional) – A string specifying the format used to display the EnigmaConfig. show_encoding (bool, optional) – Whether to indicate the encoding for formats that do not include it by default. mark_func (function, optional) – A function that highlights its argument by taking a single character as an argument and returning a string with additional characters added to (usually surrounding) that charater. Used in cases where default method of highlighting the encoded-to character (see Mapping) does not display correctly or clearly. A string schematically representing an EnigmaConfig str

Examples

A variety of formats are available for representing the state of the Enigma machine:

>>> cfg = EnigmaConfig.config_enigma("b-γ-V-VIII-II", "LFAQ", "UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL",u"03.17.04.11")
>>> print(cfg.config_string(format='single'))
CMAWFEKLNVGHBIUYTXZQOJDRPS  LFAQ  10 16 24 07
>>> print(cfg.config_string(format='internal'))
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
P YBCDFEGHIJZPONMLQRSTXVWUAK         UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL
1 LORVFBQNGWKATHJSZPIYUDXEMC  Q  07  II
2 BJYINTKWOARFEMVSGCUDPHZQLX  A  24  VIII
4 YDSKZPTNCHGQOMXAUWJFBRELVI  L  10  γ
R ENKQAUYWJICOPBLMDXZVFTHRGS         b
4 PUIBWTKJZSDXNHMFLVCGQYROAE         γ
3 UFOVRTLCASMBNJWIHPYQEKZDXG         V
2 JARTMLQVDBGYNEIUXKPFSOHZCW         VIII
1 LFZVXEINSOKAYHBRGCPMUDJWTQ         II
P YBCDFEGHIJZPONMLQRSTXVWUAK         UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL
CMAWFEKLNVGHBIUYTXZQOJDRPS
>>> print(cfg.config_string(format='windows'))
LFAQ
>>> print(cfg.config_string(format='config'))
b-γ-V-VIII-II LFAQ UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL 03.17.04.11
>>> print(cfg.config_string(format='encoding', letter='K'))
K > G


Use format='single' or omit the argument to display a summary of the Enigma machine configuration as its Mapping (see enigma_mapping), the letters at the windows, and the positions of the rotors. If a valid message character is provided as a value for letter, that is indicated as input and the letter it is encoded to is highlighted.

For example,

>>> print(cfg.config_string(letter='K'))
K > CMAWFEKLNVG̲̅HBIUYTXZQOJDRPS  LFAQ  10 16 24 07


shows the process of encoding of the letter K to G.

The default method of highlighting the encoded-to character (see Mapping) may not display correctly on all systems, so the marc_func argument can be used to define a simpler marking that does:

>>> print(cfg.config_string(letter='K', mark_func=lambda c: '[' + c + ']'))
K > CMAWFEKLNV[G]HBIUYTXZQOJDRPS  LFAQ  10 16 24 07
>>> print(cfg.config_string(letter='K', mark_func=lambda c: '(' + c + ')'))
K > CMAWFEKLNV(G)HBIUYTXZQOJDRPS  LFAQ  10 16 24 07


Use format='internal' to display a summary of the Enigma machine configuration as a detailed schematic of each processing stage of the EnigmaConfig (proceeding from top to bottom), in which

• each line indicates the Mapping preformed by the component at that stage (see stage_mapping_list);
• each line begins with an indication of the stage (rotor number, P for plugboard, or R for reflector) at that stage, and ends with the specification (see name) of the component at that stage;
• rotors additionally indicate their window letter, and position; and
• if a valid letter is provided, it is indicated as input and its encoding at each stage is marked;

The schematic is followed by the mapping for the machine as a whole (as for the 'single' format), and preceded by a (trivial, no-op) keyboard “mapping” for reference.

For example,

>>> print(cfg.config_string(letter='K', format='internal', mark_func=lambda c: '(' + c + ')'))
K > ABCDEFGHIJ(K)LMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
P YBCDFEGHIJ(Z)PONMLQRSTXVWUAK         UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL
1 LORVFBQNGWKATHJSZPIYUDXEM(C)  Q  07  II
2 BJ(Y)INTKWOARFEMVSGCUDPHZQLX  A  24  VIII
4 YDSKZPTNCHGQOMXAUW(J)FBRELVI  L  10  γ
R ENKQAUYWJ(I)COPBLMDXZVFTHRGS         b
4 PUIBWTKJ(Z)SDXNHMFLVCGQYROAE         γ
3 UFOVRTLCASMBNJWIHPYQEKZDX(G)         V
2 JARTML(Q)VDBGYNEIUXKPFSOHZCW         VIII
1 LFZVXEINSOKAYHBR(G)CPMUDJWTQ         II
P YBCDFE(G)HIJZPONMLQRSTXVWUAK         UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL
G < CMAWFEKLNV(G)HBIUYTXZQOJDRPS


shows the process of encoding of the letter K to G:

• K is entered at the keyboard, which is then
• encoded by the plugboard (P), which includes KZ in its specification (see Name), to Z, which is then
• encoded by the first rotor (1), a II rotor in the 06 position (and Q at the window), to C, which is then
• encoded by the second rotor (2), a VIII rotor in the 24 position (and A at the window), to Y, which is then
• encoded by the third rotor (3), a V rotor in the 16 position (and F at the window), to S, which is then
• encoded by the fourth rotor (4), a γ rotor in the 10 position (and L at the window), to J, which is then
• encoded by the reflector rotor (U), a b reflector, to I, which reverses the signal sending it back through the rotors, where it is then
• encoded in reverse by the fourth rotor (4), to Z, which is then
• encoded in reverse by the third rotor (3), to G, which is then
• encoded in reverse by the second rotor (2), to Q, which is then
• encoded in reverse by the first rotor (1), to G, which is then
• left unchanged by the plugboard (P), and finally
• displayed as G.

Note that (as follows from Mapping) the position of the marked letter at each stage is the alphabetic position of the marked letter at the previous stage.

This can be represented schematically (with input arriving and output exiting on the left) as

Use format='windows' to simply show the letters at the windows as the operator would see them.

>>> print(cfg.config_string(format='windows'))
LFAQ


And use format='config' to simply show a conventional specification of an EnigmaConfig (as used for config_enigma_from_string):

>>> print(cfg.config_string(format='config'))
b-γ-V-VIII-II LFAQ UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL 03.17.04.11


For both of the preceeding two formats, it is possible to also indicate the encoding of a character (not displayed by default) by setting show_encoding to True:

>>> print(cfg.config_string(format='windows', letter='K'))
LFAQ
>>> print(cfg.config_string(format='windows', letter='K', show_encoding=True))
LFAQ  K > G
>>> print(cfg.config_string(format='config', letter='K'))
b-γ-V-VIII-II LFAQ UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL 03.17.04.11
>>> print(cfg.config_string(format='config', letter='K', show_encoding=True))
b-γ-V-VIII-II LFAQ UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL 03.17.04.11  K > G


Use format='encoding' to show this encoding alone:

>>> print(cfg.config_string(format='encoding', letter='K'))
K > G


Note that though the examples above have been wrapped in print for clarity, these functions return strings:

>>> cfg.config_string(format='windows', letter='K', show_encoding=True)
u'LFAQ  K > G'
>>> cfg.config_string(format='internal').split('\n')
[u'    ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ', u'  P YBCDFEGHIJZPONMLQRSTXVWUAK         UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL', ...]


## State transitions and operation¶

EnigmaConfig.step()[source]

Step the Enigma machine to a new machine configuration.

Step the Enigma machine by rotating the rightmost (first) rotor one position, and other rotors as determined by the positions of rotors in the machine, based on the positions of their components.Component.turnovers. In the physical machine, a step occurs in response to each operator keypress, prior to processing that key’s letter (see enigma_encoding).

Stepping leaves the components and rings of a configuration unchanged, changing only positions, which is manifest in changes of the letters visible at the windows:

Returns: A new Enigma configuration. EnigmaConfig

Examples

Using the initial configuration

>>> cfg = EnigmaConfig.config_enigma("c-γ-V-I-II", "LXZO", "UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL", "03.17.04.01")


the consequences of the stepping process can be observed by examining the windows of each stepped configuration:

>>> print(cfg.windows())
LXZO
>>> print(cfg.step().windows())
LXZP
>>> print(cfg.step().step().windows())
LXZQ
>>> print(cfg.step().step().step().windows())
LXZR
>>> print(cfg.step().step().step().step().windows())
LXZS
>>> print(cfg.step().step().step().step().step().windows())
LXZT


This, and the fact that only positions (and thus window letters) change as the result of stepping, can be visualized in more detail using print_operation:

>>> cfg.print_operation(steps=5, format='config')
c-γ-V-I-II LXZO UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL 03.17.04.01
c-γ-V-I-II LXZP UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL 03.17.04.01
c-γ-V-I-II LXZQ UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL 03.17.04.01
c-γ-V-I-II LXZR UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL 03.17.04.01
c-γ-V-I-II LXZS UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL 03.17.04.01
c-γ-V-I-II LXZT UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL 03.17.04.01

EnigmaConfig.stepped_configs(steps=None)[source]

Generate a series of stepped Enigma machine configurations.

Parameters: steps (int, optional) – An optional limit on the number of steps to take in generating configurations. EnigmaConfig – The EnigmaConfig resulting from applying step to the previous one.

Examples

This allows the examples above to be rewritten as

>>> for c in cfg.stepped_configs(5):
...     print(c.windows())
LXZO
LXZP
LXZQ
LXZR
LXZS
LXZT

>>> for c in cfg.stepped_configs(5):
...     print(c)
c-γ-V-I-II LXZO UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL 03.17.04.01
c-γ-V-I-II LXZP UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL 03.17.04.01
c-γ-V-I-II LXZQ UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL 03.17.04.01
c-γ-V-I-II LXZR UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL 03.17.04.01
c-γ-V-I-II LXZS UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL 03.17.04.01
c-γ-V-I-II LXZT UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL 03.17.04.01

EnigmaConfig.print_operation(**kwargs)[source]

Show the operation of the Enigma machine as a series of configurations.

Print out the operation of the Enigma machine as a series of EnigmaConfig, as it encodes a message and/or for a specified number of steps.

Parameters: message (unicode) – A message to encode. Characters that are not letters will be replaced with standard Kriegsmarine substitutions or be removed (see make_message). Each character will be used as a letter in the config_string specified by the format. steps (int, optional) – A number of steps to run; if omitted when a message is provided, will default to the length of the message; otherwise defaults to 1 overwrite (bool, optional) – Whether to overwrite the display of each step after a pause. (May result in garbled output on some systems.) format (str, optional) – A string specifying the format used to display the EnigmaConfig at each step of message processing; see config_string. initial (bool, optional) – Whether to show the initial starting step; the EnigmaConfig before encoding begins. delay (float, optional) – The number of seconds to wait (see time.sleep) between the display of each processing step; defaults to 0.2. show_step (bool, optional) – Whether to include the step number in the display. show_encoding (bool, optional) – Whether to indicate the encoding of each character for formats that do not include it by default; see config_string. mark_func (function, optional) – A function that highlights its argument by taking a single character as an argument and returning a string with additional characters added to (usually surrounding) that charater. Used in cases where default method of highlighting the encoded-to character (see Mapping) does not display correctly or clearly.

Examples

(For details on differences among formats used for displaying each step, see the examples for config_string.)

Show the operation of a machine for 10 steps, indicating step numbers:

>>> cfg = EnigmaConfig.config_enigma("B-I-III-I", "EMO", "UX.MO.AY", "13.04.11")
>>> cfg.print_operation(format='single', steps=10, show_step=True)
0000      CNAUJVQSLEMIKBZRGPHXDFYTWO  EMO  19 10 05
0001      UNXKGVERLYDIQBTWMHZOAFPCJS  EMP  19 10 06
0002      QTYJZXUPKDIMLSWHAVNBGROFCE  EMQ  19 10 07
0003      DMXAPTRWKYINBLUESGQFOZHCJV  ENR  19 11 08
0004      IUSMHRPEAQTVDYWGJFCKBLOZNX  ENS  19 11 09
0005      WMVXQRLSPYOGBTKIEFHNZCADJU  ENT  19 11 10
0006      WKIQXNRSCVBOYFLUDGHZPJAEMT  ENU  19 11 11
0007      RVPTWSLKYXHGNMQCOAFDZBEJIU  ENV  19 11 12
0008      IYTKRVSMALDJHZWXUEGCQFOPBN  ENW  19 11 13
0009      PSWGMODULZVIERFAXNBYHKCQTJ  ENX  19 11 14
0010      IVOWZKHGARFSPUCMXJLYNBDQTE  ENY  19 11 15


Show the operation of a machine as it encodes a message, with step numbers:

>>> cfg.print_operation(format='single', message='TESTING', show_step=True)
0000      CNAUJVQSLEMIKBZRGPHXDFYTWO  EMO  19 10 05
0001  T > UNXKGVERLYDIQBTWMHZO̲̅AFPCJS  EMP  19 10 06
0002  E > QTYJZ̲̅XUPKDIMLSWHAVNBGROFCE  EMQ  19 10 07
0003  S > DMXAPTRWKYINBLUESGQ̲̅FOZHCJV  ENR  19 11 08
0004  T > IUSMHRPEAQTVDYWGJFCK̲̅BLOZNX  ENS  19 11 09
0005  I > WMVXQRLSP̲̅YOGBTKIEFHNZCADJU  ENT  19 11 10
0006  N > WKIQXNRSCVBOYF̲̅LUDGHZPJAEMT  ENU  19 11 11
0007  G > RVPTWSL̲̅KYXHGNMQCOAFDZBEJIU  ENV  19 11 12


Show the same process, but just what the operator would see:

>>> cfg.print_operation(format='windows', message='TESTING', show_encoding=True, show_step=True)
0000  EMO
0001  EMP  T > O
0002  EMQ  E > Z
0003  ENR  S > Q
0004  ENS  T > K
0005  ENT  I > P
0006  ENU  N > F
0007  ENV  G > L


Show detailed internal version of the same process:

>>> cfg.print_operation(format='internal', message='TESTING', show_step=True)
0000
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
P YBCDEFGHIJKLONMPQRSTXVWUAZ         UX.MO.AY
1 HCZMRVJPKSUDTQOLWEXNYFAGIB  O  05  I
2 KOMQEPVZNXRBDLJHFSUWYACTGI  M  10  III
3 AXIQJZKRMSUNTOLYDHVBWEGPFC  E  19  I
R YRUHQSLDPXNGOKMIEBFZCWVJAT         B
3 ATZQVYWRCEGOILNXDHJMKSUBPF         I
2 VLWMEQYPZOANCIBFDKRXSGTJUH         III
1 WZBLRVXAYGIPDTOHNEJMKFQSUC         I
P YBCDEFGHIJKLONMPQRSTXVWUAZ         UX.MO.AY
CNAUJVQSLEMIKBZRGPHXDFYTWO

0001
T > ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRST̲̅UVWXYZ
P YBCDEFGHIJKLONMPQRST̲̅XVWUAZ         UX.MO.AY
1 BYLQUIOJRTCSPNKVDWMX̲̅EZFHAG  P  06  I
2 KOMQEPVZNXRBDLJHFSUWYACT̲̅GI  M  10  III
3 AXIQJZKRMSUNTOLYDHVB̲̅WEGPFC  E  19  I
R YR̲̅UHQSLDPXNGOKMIEBFZCWVJAT         B
3 ATZQVYWRCEGOILNXDH̲̅JMKSUBPF         I
2 VLWMEQYP̲̅ZOANCIBFDKRXSGTJUH         III
1 YAKQUWZXFHOCSNGM̲̅DILJEPRTBV         I
P YBCDEFGHIJKLO̲̅NMPQRSTXVWUAZ         UX.MO.AY
O < UNXKGVERLYDIQBTWMHZO̲̅AFPCJS

0002
E > ABCDE̲̅FGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
P YBCDE̲̅FGHIJKLONMPQRSTXVWUAZ         UX.MO.AY
1 XKPTH̲̅NIQSBROMJUCVLWDYEGZFA  Q  07  I
2 KOMQEPVZ̲̅NXRBDLJHFSUWYACTGI  M  10  III
3 AXIQJZKRMSUNTOLYDHVBWEGPFC̲̅  E  19  I
R YRU̲̅HQSLDPXNGOKMIEBFZCWVJAT         B
...


## Encoding¶

### Message encoding¶

EnigmaConfig.enigma_encoding(**kwargs)[source]

Encode a message using the machine configuration.

Encode a string, interpreted as a message (see make_message), using the (starting) machine configuration, by stepping (see step) the configuration prior to processing each character of the message. This produces a new configuration (with new positions only) for encoding each character, which serves as the “starting” configuration for subsequent processing of the message.

Parameters: message (unicode) – A message to encode. The machine-encoded message. unicode

Examples

Given machine configuration

>>> cfg = EnigmaConfig.config_enigma("b-γ-V-VIII-II", "LFAP", "UX.MO.KZ.AY.EF.PL", "03.17.04.11")


the message 'KRIEG' is encoded to 'GOWNW':

>>> cfg.enigma_encoding('KRIEG')
u'GOWNW'


The details of this encoding and its relationship to stepping from one configuration to another are illustrated using print_operation:

>>> cfg.print_operation("KRIEG", format='windows', show_encoding=True, show_step=True)
0000  LFAP
0001  LFAQ  K > G
0002  LFAR  R > O
0003  LFAS  I > W
0004  LFAT  E > N
0005  LFAU  G > W


Note that because of the way the Enigma machine is designed, it is always the case (provided that msg is all uppercase letters) that:

cfg.enigma_encoding(cfg.enigma_encoding(msg)) == msg

EnigmaConfig.print_encoding(**kwargs)[source]

Show the conventionally formatted encoding of a message.

Print out the encoding of a message by an (initial) EnigmaConfig, formatted into conventional blocks of four characters.

Parameters: message (unicode) – A message to encode. Characters that are not letters will be replaced with standard Kriegsmarine substitutions or be removed (see make_message).

Examples

>>> cfg = EnigmaConfig.config_enigma("c-β-V-VI-VIII", "CDTJ", "AE.BF.CM.DQ.HU.JN.LX.PR.SZ.VW", "05.16.05.12")
>>> cfg.print_encoding("FOLGENDES IST SOFORT BEKANNTZUGEBEN")
RBBF PMHP HGCZ XTDY GAHG UFXG EWKB LKGJ

static EnigmaConfig.make_message(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Convert a string to valid Enigma machine input.

Replace any symbols for which there are standard Kriegsmarine substitutions, remove any remaining non-letter characters, and convert to uppercase. This function is applied automatically to message arguments for functions defined here (enigma_encoding).

Parameters: string (unicode) – A string to convert to valid Enigma machine input. A string of valid Enigma machine input characters. unicode